A flight, a gulp, a rookery, a stunning, a swim…of Cormorants

Neotropical Cormorants by the hundreds congregated on barren islands in the middle of the lagoons at Los Pantanos de Villa reserve, south of Lima, Peru.  The various terms for groups of cormorants really don’t do this mass of breeding birds justice.  Instead of a “swim” of cormorants, it should be something like a “swarm”.

Neotropical Cormorants at Los Pantanos de Villa reserve, Lima, Peru

Neotropical Cormorants at Los Pantanos de Villa reserve, Lima, Peru.  This view shows how close the reserve is to the surrounding part of the city.

Neotropical Cormorants at Los Pantanos de Villa reserve, Lima, Peru

Neotropical Cormorant carrying nesting material to the overcrowded conglomeration of nest sites.

Neotropical Cormorants at Los Pantanos de Villa reserve, Lima, Peru

A few cormorants avoided the congestion on the islands by sunning on a nearby dead tree.

Neotropical Cormorants at Los Pantanos de Villa reserve, Lima, Peru

Cormorant  drying its wings and body feathers

Neotropical Cormorants at Los Pantanos de Villa reserve, Lima, Peru

Not the most handsome of birds…

Neotropical Cormorants at Los Pantanos de Villa reserve, Lima, Peru

Crowded conditions for nesting, but safety in numbers perhaps…

A good omen

I count it as a good omen that the first animal I saw on this trip to Peru was a Monarch butterfly.

Monarch butterfly, Lima, Peru

Monarch butterflies are probably resident year-round here in this equitable climate.  I hope these populations are healthier and more numerous than the ones that migrate to the U.S. from Mexico.

Walking among the high rise buildings and city industry of the Miraflores area of Lima, the only living things to be seen were people and plants.  So when we stumbled across a park dedicated to the fallen defenders of the city during the War of the Pacific between Peru and Chile in 1881, I was delighted to find a few birds in the trees and a few Monarchs nectaring on the Lantana blossoms.

War memorial Park in Miraflores, Lima, Peru

One of many statues in the park commemorating the fallen defenders, some of whom were apparently young children.  Colorful buildings, too.

the amazing California Bay

The California Bay tree, also known as the California Bay Laurel or California Laurel, and a host of other names, is one of its kind, the only species in its own genus, and quite an interesting plant.  Bay trees are part of the coastal forest and unique to the California floristic province.

Huckleberry Botanical preserve, Oakland CA

Mixed oak-bay coastal forest at Huckleberry Botanical preserve in the Oakland hills.

Their leaves are more pungent than the Mediterranean bay used in cooking. My husband once stuffed a chicken with bay laurel leaves before cooking it on a Boy Scout camping trip and found it completely inedible.

Like some other coastal tree species, California bay have a swollen base of root crown called lignotuber which protects delicate buds that sprout when the central trunk has been damaged.

Stump sprouts in California bay laurel

Stump sprouts in California bay laurel shoot upward from the root crown.

The resultant growth of multiple stems emerging from the root crown makes this forest look like a dense jungle.

California Bay Laurel

Atypical growth form of the California is bay tree, where numerous sprouts have replaced the central stump that might have been damaged by fire or storm.

multiple stems of California bay laurel

Multiple stems of California bay laurel tower over the fern understory on the banks of a small creek.

California Live Oak, Huckleberry Botanical Preserve, Oakland CA

On the more southern-facing (I.e., sunnier and drier) side of the creek, the trees are predominantly California Live Oak, with noticeably fewer laurels and no fern understory.

What a difference the microclimate of this forest makes.  We wore our jackets while hiking through the dark, shady north facing laurel forest, and worked up a sweat climbing the sun-exposed hills of oak forest.

Mixed hardwood-coniferous forest at Huckleberry Botanical Preserve, Oakland CA

Mixed hardwood-coniferous forest in the Huckleberry Botanical Preserve is truly impressive.

Seven swans a-sleeping…

A scene from across Lake Vadnais in St. Paul called to me to get closer and try to photograph the group of Trumpeter Swans.

trumpeter swans

I haven’t seen any Trumpeter Swans up close since last winter, and here they were basking on the shore of one of the lakes that supply water to St. Paul.

So I hiked around the lake trying to figure out where on the trail they might be. However, it was bow season for deer that day, and so I couldn’t stray too far off the path into the woods.

By the time I found them, this is what I saw:  seven swans a-sleeping (well, one was alert).

trumpeter swans-2

It must have been a busy morning, and I’ve never seen them a bunch of swans so completely sacked out.

However, road noise woke a couple of them up, just for a few moments.

trumpeter swans

trumpeter swans

and then right back to napping.

I guess when you’re as big as an adult Trumpeter Swan, you don’t worry too much about photographers creeping up near by.  Even the Mallards were unperturbed.

colorful rivers

Well, not so much the color of the river per se, but it was the color along the river last week in Wisconsin and Michigan during the peak of the fall color show that was impressive.  Some examples, seen between rain showers:

wolf river, wisconsin-

Along the Wolf River on the way to Rhinelander, Wisconsin, the sumac is intensely red, and maples have turned a brilliant yellow, orange, or red.

Wolf River, Wisconsin

Places like this are where you wish you were in a canoe, drifting down a lazy part of the river, gazing at the glorious color along the shoreline.

wolf river, wisconsin-

Not a huge waterfall by Lake Superior north shore standards, but a pretty scene nonetheless.

We know that warm days and cool nights of fall stimulate plants to break down their chlorophyll, unmasking all the xanthophyll and carotene photo pigments in the leaves, and those changes in leaf metabolism produce the yellow, orange, and red colors.  I have written more about the chemistry of leaf color change earlier — (“you know it’s fall when…”).  But what accounts for the synchronous color changes of rural northern hardwood forests, compared to the more prolonged sequential color changes we see in urban landscapes?

Summit peak, Porcupine Mts, Michigan

Synchronous color change in mature beech-maple hardwood forest, Porcupine Mts., Michigan.  You don’t see sights like this in many urban areas.

Lots of factors might be responsible:  urban areas are generally warmer with a less homogeneous climate than surrounding open countryside; plants in a natural forest most likely respond to climatic changes in similar ways, whereas planted urban trees, often non-native, adapt to a mixture of environmental cues with different schedules for leaf fall.  Leaves might change color more slowly and stay on trees longer in the urban environment simply because temperature and moisture conditions there are so different from the surrounding countryside.

Fall color in the “Porkies”

I’ve always wanted to visit the Porcupine Mountains in northwestern Michigan, and fall is the perfect time to take in the color change in the forest, as well as the dramatic cliffs in the park.  Rising to a peak of just under 2,000 feet and lining the southeastern shore of Lake Superior, they provide great views of the most extensive old growth of northern hardwood forest west of the Adirondack forest in New York.

Lake Superior from Summit Peak, Porcupine Mts, Michigan

A view from the 75 foot observation tower at Summit Peak on the southern edge of this 31,000 acre park.  The climax forest of maple, basswood, yellow birch and hemlock stretch beyond what the eye can see. Lake Superior is in the far distance.

Observation tower at Lake Superior from Summit Peak, Porcupine Mts, Michigan

An extensive series of boardwalks, platforms, and an observation tower ensures great views of the forest landscape.

One of the star attractions of the park is Lake of the Clouds, so named for its mirror reflection of the sky. But equally impressive are the sheer cliffs of ancient volcanic rocks that form a long escarpment on the northern side of the park. These are the exposed remnants of the volcanic action that formed the mid-continent rift that runs from western Lake Superior all the way down to Kansas.

Lake of the Clouds, Porcupine Mts, Michigan

Lake of the Clouds, Porcupine Mts, Michigan

Outflow from the Lake of the Clouds also reflects some of the sky.

Lake of the Clouds, Porcupine Mts, Michigan

Glacial action has polished the surface of the volcanic rocks here, making them almost slippery.

On the western edge of the park, the Presque Isle river churns through volcanic deposits scrubbing out holes and undercutting cliffs.

Presque Isle river, Porcupine Mts., Michigan

The river is lined with hemlock forest where trees are so close together, barely any light makes it to the forest floor.

Hemlock forest, Presque Isle river, Procupine Mts., Michigan

Well-marked trails and wonderful scenery make this an exceptional place to visit, especially during the peak of the fall color season.

Ridges and Swales

It might sound like this is about a fashionable department store, but beach ridges and the shallow, watery swales between them are natural features of the Great Lakes shorelines. We hiked at one example of this complex ecosystem at the Ridges Sanctuary in Bailey’s Harbor on the eastern side of the Door peninsula.

The Ridges Sanctuary, Baileys Harbor, Door County, WI

The entrance walkway to the Sanctuary crossing over a swale, with the shoreline lighthouse at the end.

Ridges and swales are most likely to develop where coastal land is uplifted or where lake levels fall, which is probably what has been happening here in the past 10,000 years since the last glacial recession.  Sediments are deposited with gentle wave action against the shoreline in a protected harbor, leaving behind a low hill of sand and gravel in which hearty colonists establish themselves.

Map of The Ridges Sanctuary, Baileys Harbor, Door County, WI

Map of the Ridges Sanctuary, showing the parallel rows of beach ridges separated by low-lying wet swales.  Black lines are the trails through the area.

The Ridges Sanctuary, Baileys Harbor, Door County, WI

The most recent beach ridge on the shoreline is being colonized by 3-foot tall conifers and grasses, which will slowly add humus to the sandy matrix, improving conditions for further growth.

The Ridges Sanctuary, Baileys Harbor, Door County, WI

Between each of the Ridges, is a low, wet area (the swale) where sedges thrive, and assorted moisture-loving plants, like orchids thrive.

The Ridges Sanctuary, Baileys Harbor, Door County, WI

Raised walkways guide hikers across the swales and provide views of wildlife and exotic plant species along the edges of the ridges.

The variation in environment from dry to wet, or coastal to inland makes this an extremely diverse ecosystem, home to more than 500 species of plants, 60 some species of birds, and more than a dozen mammals.

Fringed Gentian, Ridges Sanctuary, Door County , WI

Fringed Gentian is one of the 500+ plant species to be found in this diverse ecosystem.  Summer blooms include at least 25 species of native orchids, along with bog species like pitcher plant and sundew.

Fringed Gentian, Ridges Sanctuary, Door County , WI

The Ridges Sanctuary, Baileys Harbor, Door County, WI

The ridge furthest from the coast begins to look more like mature coniferous forest, with tall red pine, white cedar, and fir trees. The path here is spongey, needle duff rather than sandy gravel.

The Ridges Sanctuary was founded in 1937, becoming Wisconsin’s first land trust, designed to protect the state’s most biologically diverse ecosystem.

Door county sights

The Door county peninsula that juts out into Lake Michigan north of Green Bay, Wisconsin seems to enjoy a different climate than the surrounding part of the state.  Stepping back a couple of weeks from the peak fall color of central Wisconsin, trees are just barely tinged with red and gold, and the weather is balmy instead of chilled.  Maybe it’s the lake effect.

We hiked along the limestone cliffs at Cave point county park on the eastern edge of the peninsula and marveled at the way the trees could seemingly grow right out of cracks in these 400 million year old rocks that have been polished smooth by glacial action.

Cave point park, Jacksonport, WI

Pounding waves undercut the limestone bluffs and create caves along the shoreline.

Cave point park, Jacksonport, WI

Water near the rocks is crystal clear and a beautiful jade green color.

Cave point park, Jacksonport, WI

A mixed forest of white cedar, alder, beech, and maple is mostly stunted in its growth because of the lack of soil covering the limestone.

Cave point park, Jacksonport, WI

Water runoff from waves or rain/snow fall removes a lot of what little soil accumulates, and most of the trail along the shoreline involves walking over exposed tree roots.

Cave point park, Jacksonport, WI

In a couple of weeks, the fall color here will be stunning, just as advertised in the Door county brochures.

Whitefish Dunes state park, Jacksonport, WI

Adjacent to Cave Point park is the much larger Whitefish Dunes state park, which runs the length of the sandy shoreline here.  Plant life here faces a different challenge than growing through cracks in limestone, namely establishing roots in a shifting surface of sand with little subsurface moisture.

but as always, wherever you go, life seems to find a way…