Remembering the year that was…

This year was an amazing time of one adventure after another…as we made up for the Covid isolation period and two years of postponed trips. So many beautiful places, beautiful animals, beautiful landscapes, and amazing people that we met. Here’s a snapshot of the year in review.

(Note: if you’re interested in seeing more and perhaps better photos of any of the activities mentioned below, go to the main page of the blog: https://bybio.wordpress.com and there should be a pull-down menu for the Archives with months and years of the blog listed near the top right of the main page. Just click on the month of interest, and scroll down through the days to see more of what I have summarized here. IPhone and iPad users may have to scroll to the bottom of the main page to see the dialog boxes with the months listed.)

The highlight of a trip to northern Minnesota to photograph the winter avian residents there was watching a very cooperative Great Gray Owl get four mice (from under the snow) in just four attempts — 100% success!
We took the long-awaited, much postponed cruise down the west coast of Mexico and Central America through the Panama Canal, ending up in Florida. Birding from the ship turned out to be a big plus.
Photography buddy Debby invited us to stay at Hilton Head, SC for a week to marvel at the huge numbers of shorebirds and others that overwinter in this milder mid-Atlantic climate.
As a prelude to our birding adventure in Spain in April-May, we took ourselves sight-seeing in Portugal, with a few days birding and exploring Lisbon, a train ride to Porto, and a few days there before ending the prelude in Madrid (a much more beautiful city than I remembered).
Birding extravaganza in the plains, forests, shore, swamps, and even in old cities in the Extremadura region and Donana national park in southern Spain with Ruth Miller and Alan Davies — birders extraordinaire
The annual family hike in our favorite haunts of the Desolation Wilderness of the Sierra Nevada mountains of California took place early this year (to avoid a repeat of the disastrous smoke and fire threat we faced last year on the hike in August). We were rewarded with 100% warm, sunny days and no bugs!
Some of the family rode an airplane home from the Sierra hike, but two grandsons were kind enough to keep their grandparents company on a road trip from California through Nevada, Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Nebraska, and South Dakota on the way back to Minnesota. Sights were seen and adventures were had along the way.
Although tamer than the previous months of travel, the backyard did not disappoint in bringing wildlife and beautiful scenes for photography. I realize in writing this now that I forgot to include the visit from the kit fox and its mama in August.
We always make at least one trip out to the central Minnesota prairie during the summer, and this year we found ground squirrels and monarch butterflies at Fort Riley state park. The tom turkeys visited the front and the back yards often, but without their girl friends.
A trip to eastern Europe (the Balkan countries) was a premier highlight of the year. It was definitely a learning and discovery adventure since we knew nothing about this part of the world. Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Montenegro, and Slovenia — all beautiful, all very interesting though with tragic stories from inhabitants, and all easy to travel around with lots of friendly folks that spoke English.
As always, the fall color spectacle in the Twin Cities did not disappoint. The colors remained vivid for a long time, even into November before the trees finally gave up with the snowfall that began late this year on Nov. 12.
The forest outside became a fairy land of white-encrusted branches after the first major dump of very wet snow in December. Inside the tree was decorated with lights, mementos, and presents. Happy holidays!!

Favorite fall “fotos”

My favorite season of the year is almost gone now, but we did manage to see a part of the glorious color changes come through the Minnesota woods this fall. In addition to this year’s contribution (below) to my fall color postings, I wanted to share some of my past favorites as well.

Sometimes, the best photos are captured in places you’re not supposed to be — like the “park personnel only” roads in Fish Lake park, Maple Grove MN this fall. (But the local state patrolman was nice about it.)
Sandhill cranes at Sherburne National Wildlife Refuge, where thousands of cranes gathered in October 2021.
Trumpeter Swans flying over Cloud Lake at sunset in the Porcupine Mts, MI, in October 2018 was a special treat.
I caught a special ray of sunlight streaming through basswood leaves at Roy Lake SP, SoDak, in October 2020.
The Wood Ducks on a local pond in Roseville, MN in October 2021 weren’t the only colorful things there that day — the colorful reflection from the woodland trees was amazing.
Fall color along the north shore of Lake Superior in MN is always spectacular. This shot was taken from about as far north as you can go in MN before you cross into Canada in October 2016.
Fall color along the rivers of the upper Midwest is usually equally spectacular. This shot from the Wolf River near Rhinelander WI was taken on a very cloudy day in October 2017, but the lack of sun didn’t diminish the vibrancy of the color.

Limestone and waterfalls in Plitvice Park, Croatia

Croatia’s largest national park, located in roughly the center of the country, features sheer limestone cliffs that tower above emerald green water and a bounty of large and small waterfalls and cascades that rush down a series of about 16 lakes.

A series of boardwalks at the park takes you around a few of the lakes and waterfalls where you can appreciate the amazing natural processes that create this landscape.

A view from the top of the canyon — you can just barely see the fine white line of the boardwalk trail at the base of the distant limestone cliff face. The highest waterfall in the park is on the right side of the image.
The map of the Plitvice Lakes shows the natural (i.e., not man-made) dams that block the river flow to create the lakes. However, the contours and even placement of the lakes change gradually over time, as the location of dams changes.
Rainfall leaches calcium carbonate from the soft limestone rock and creates channels through the rock to feed an underground river that bubbles up into small ponds and lakes when it reaches harder rock.
The water becomes saturated with calcium carbonate which gets deposited on everything over which the water flows. Vegetation growing along the shore of the lake as well as algae and moss growing at the edge of the lake get a coating of calcium carbonate on them, forming stony barriers to water movement — i.e., dams.
Water flowing over the dams creates cascades and waterfalls that carry the calcium-carbonate rich water further downstream.
More calcium carbonate is deposited on the plants and bacterial colonies creating yet another set of dams and pools above them.
Dams are impermanent structures, because the rushing water dissolves them, only to deposit the minerals elsewhere in slower moving water.
The type of algae that bloom in the calcium carbonate rich waters of the lakes contribute to the unique color of these lakes, which actually change from aqua-colored to teal-colored depending on the season, the temperature, and the algal population bloom.
The lakes are especially beautiful in the fall when the teal green water color contrasts with the rich golds and reds of the forest vegetation.

Sierra hike 2022 – the way down

Continued from the previous post: what a treat to spend a day hiking between lakes without a heavy backpack, and through gorgeous green meadows lined with red fir trees on a fairly level trail!

Off we go for a morning hike, with lunches to eat at Lake Lois…
I never get tired of these gorgeous meadows, and using the Merlin bird app, we were able to figure out which birds were doing all the singing.
Back at the Lake Doris campsite in late afternoon, it was time to pack up and head over Rockbound Pass down to Lake Maud. My granddaughters wanted to rename this set of lakes to something less old-fashioned sounding. We climbed up a little ways to the low part of the pass, only losing the trail a couple of times in the snowfields.
The other side of Rockbound Pass is well-named — you must hike a long ways down a jumble of rocks, often separated by big steps down. This was one of the few places there was a “nice” trail.
And sometimes the trail looked like this — and you ask yourself, ”where is the trail”?
Our destination is in the distance, but it’s already early evening, and we’re still 2 miles away!
Surprisingly, the lower part of this dry, rocky trail was flush with beautiful wildflowers in full bloom.
Two, tired grandparents rolled into camp, downed a quick bite of food, and collapsed in the tent at sunset.
The next morning everyone felt perky again, but sad to leave the mountains.
Grandpa led the three oldest grandsons down the trail showing them how to identify the various trees and flowers, and then launching into a longer history of early California.
Leaving the wilderness —it’s only another mile or two to our cars. And thats the end of Sierra hike 2022.

Flamingos (dancing birds?) of the Spanish Marshes

Where the confluence of two rivers, Tinto and Odiel, empty into the Atlantic in southern Spain, a huge coastal marsh system has developed over tens of thousands of years. Ancient civilizations, like the Phoenicians, Greeks, and Romans recognized the rich fishing grounds and mudflats that supported such a wealth of diversity of life, including wading birds, shorebirds, raptors, hare, deer, wolf, and lynx, and they built hunting lodges and port cities on the edge of the marshes. Today, the bustling Andalusian city of Huelva (claimed to be the oldest city in Europe) lies in the center of more than 17,000 acres of marsh protected in the Odiel Biosphere Reserve.

Las Marismas (marshes) of the Odiel and Tinto rivers are renewed twice a day as the high tides return to bring nutrients inland from the sea. This is what nourishes the more than 300 species of both resident and migratory birds that stop over here on their way from Africa to breed in Europe. (Map from “Nature-watching in Europe“)

Rare European Spoonbills were discovered to be breeding here in large numbers in the 1970s, and this led to the declaration of the area as a UNESCO reserve in 1983. As a result, the Odiel marshes have become one of the premier wetland habitats for European birds, but the area is more than just marsh. It features salt pans (natural and man-made), lakes, forest, heathland, sandy shore, tidal channels, and of course, the rivers — diverse habitat for a multitude of species.

Odiel marshes are the perfect habitat for these European (white) Spoonbills that use their long flattened beak to sweep the shallow waters for crustaceans, mollusks, worms, and tiny fish.
In addition to the iconic Spoonbills and a wide variety of shorebirds feasting on mud-dwelling invertebrates, the Greater Flamingos breed here in great abundance. The shallow salt pans are filled with brine shrimp which forms the bulk of their diet. The commercial salt mining operation here actually provides more habitat for birds to use for foraging in a set of about 16 rectangular pools, some of which you can see in the background.
Flamingos are filter-feeders. They turn their heads upside down in the water, pushing the water in and out with their tongues over their overly large lower bill that is lined with horny plates that trap the tiny shrimp.
Greater Flamingos are actually white birds with accents of pink (unlike the Americas variety). But the extent of pink coloration is determined by the carotene in the shrimp in their diet, and there is plenty of that here.
Our guide, Manu Mojarro, showed us how prolific the brine shrimp are in these salt pan waters where the salinity is many times more concentrated than sea water.
In order to separate the shrimp from the salt water, flamingos pump water over the plates of their lower mandible about 20 times per second, and must consume about 270 grams of food per day (approx 1/2 pound). Their shrimp diet is supplemented with fly larvae, mollusks, crabs, and small fish, which they stir up by swishing their feet around in the mud.

Greater Flamingos gather in the hundreds to breed in these marshes on a small island where they build their mud mound nests right next to each other–like the ones in the photo below from Algeria.

View of the Greater Flamingo colony at Ezzemoul, northern Algeria, from a paper by Samroui and Laid, 2013 in Avian Biology Research.

Finding a mate in a dense crowd of hundreds or thousands of individuals must be challenging, but flamingos are noted for their dancing skills and the collective group ballet that is used to pair individuals up. Older flamingos with longer necks might have an advantage here, but the entire group performs a synchronized dance to rev each other up for the grand finale.

Sir David Attenborough narrates the action…

The word Flamingo in Spanish is “flamenco” — is it just coincidence that the flamenco dancer’s moves strongly resemble that of the bird’s during its mating dance?

Birds and blooms in the Tagus river estuary of Lisbon

We spent part of a day acquainting ourselves with the beautiful environs of central Lisbon and then took a birding tour of the variety of habitats in the Tagus river estuary the following day. This is the largest estuary system in western Europe, with an area of more than 80,000 acres where as many as 50,000 waterfowl overwinter.

We’re not in Kansas anymore — or in Minnesota! Spring wildflowers were in great abundance here in the meadows surrounding the salt marsh.
Red Poppies were a delight to find along roadsides and in parks. i have always loved the orange California poppies, but these are even more spectacular.
Unbelievable color!
The contrast of the very old structures that probably date back to 16th or 17th century with the modern constructions of wind farms and electrical utilities.
We saw a variety of birds still utilizing the estuary wetlands, but there were just a few representative examples left at the time in the spring. Flamingoes here are mostly white with pinkish tinges of color on their back and wings.
Dozens of Glossy Ibis grazed in wet meadows and marshes, but were very skittish and took off with the slightest disturbance.
At least 8 species of shorebirds foraged in the mud at low tide, moving from pool to pool en masse.
But the strangest sight we viewed on this trip was White Storks nesting communally on power structures everywhere — in urban, rural, and in natural settings.

In a little over three decades, the White Stork increased from around 1000 individuals in Portugal in 1995 to about 15,000 individuals today. And one of the reasons for this increase in the face of near extinction is the access that the storks have to foraging in landfills for the nutritious remains of fishermen hauls, restaurant leftovers, and household garbage. in fact, now White Storks will not try to nest farther than about 10-12 miles from the landfills.

Storks are rather handsome birds with black wingtips and long, red bills. They stand about 3 feet tall and weigh about 7-8 pounds. Their usual diet of small invertebrate and vertebrate species found in wetlands has been supplanted by the much easier to acquire landfill organic waste.
Storks are powerful flyers, which might be why this bird that likes to nest on chimneys and rooftops in urban areas was linked to folk tales about the delivery of babies. The storks apparently have great fidelity to the nest site where they raised last year’s chicks, but the pair do not stay together on their wintering grounds in tropical Africa. So they may or may not meet up in subsequent years to rear another batch of chicks.

Amorous Stilts

It’s Springtime in South Carolina, and the birds are paired up and prepping for the egg-laying season — meaning there is a lot of mating going on. I spotted a couple of Black-necked Stilts at the Bear Island wildlife management area on Edisto Island doing a little courtship routine. The female was bent over (but not foraging) while the male walked a complete circle around her as she turned, always presenting her rear end to him.

The male has just begun his circle of the female here. The sexes are identical in color, but can be distinguished by their behavior toward one another.
Finished with his circling maneuver, he tweaks her tail feathers with his beak.
An interesting behavior and communication with the female. You can just barely see that these birds have intensely red iris color in the spring. Is that a signal of breeding readiness, I wonder?
The male hops on her back, and tweaks the top of the female’s head with his bill. But if there was a sperm transfer (called a “cloacal kiss”) in this series, my camera didn’t catch it. This was as low as his rear end got toward hers.
And he hops off after about 5 seconds on her back. Look at the position of his left leg — who knew birds could bend this flexibly? This is the equivalent of our ankle joint — bending forward!
Cementing the pair bond with a little body to body contact. Now you can see the bright red iris they both have (click on the image to enlarge it) during the breeding season. Unless the light is just right, the iris looks black.

Fish for breakfast

Photography buddy Debbie spied an Osprey on a tree branch right next to the road as we were driving into the Pinckney Island wildlife refuge near Hilton Head, South Carolina, so we stopped for a photo. Not only did the bird stay put on its perch, it calmly proceeded to eat its morning snack of some long-bodied fish right in front of us.

Freshly caught, perhaps a needlefish or something like it, probably an easy catch for this Osprey.
Piece by piece, the fish gradually disappears down the Osprey’s gullet.

A few birds

Photography buddy Debbie promised we would see ”a few birds” during our stay at Hilton Head island in South Carolina…and so we did on our adventure to Tybee Island north beach.

A flock of Black Skimmers flew right in front of us. My camera was already zoomed to the max on another bird unfortunately, so I couldn’t begin to capture the whole flock.
Royal Terns posed like statues along the shore, only flying up when someone walked (obliviously) through the middle of the group.
Tiny Sanderlings skittered over the surface of the shoreline, poking their beaks into the jellies that had washed up.

Coming soon…to your neighborhood

Babies, babies, babies!

New fluffy Cygnets
New Mallard ducklings
New Canada Goose goslings
New Tree Swallow chicks
New Kildeer chicks
New Sandhill Crane chicks — Photo by Debbie Reynolds
New Pied-billed Grebe chicks
New Eastern Kingbird chicks

O frabjous day! Callooh! Callay!” Springtime is on the way!! (Apologies to Lewis Carroll)