Picturesque Lake Bled

In the northwest corner of Slovenia, the city of Bled has one of the most picturesque, postcard-worthy lakes in Europe, complete with its own tiny island (the only island in the entire country)! Like many cities founded in the Middle Ages, Bled has a castle dating to the 11th century that towers above the city on an imposing cliff. According to some, this is the oldest castle in Slovenia, and one of the most popular tourist attractions. Doubly fortified walls surround two courtyards (an upper and lower) providing beautiful views of the lake, the city, and the countryside.

Scenic view of Lake Bled and the island from the lower courtyard of the castle.
City of Bled from the Castle wall. The Austrian border is about 60 miles to the north.
Additional outer fortifications were added to the castle in the 16th century after an earthquake damaged much of the buildings.
View of the lower courtyard and the Romanesque-style tower that was part of the original castle design.
View of the upper courtyard with its small chapel (left) and museum rooms with exhibits of castle history and various armaments.

After walking around the castle for a while, we boarded a small boat (gondola) to row out to the island. Motors are not allowed on Lake Bled, because apparently it is easily polluted. Lack of good water turnover from the few streams flowing in and out coupled with the lack of wind that could cycle water from the bottom to the top surface could make the lake water stagnant. Like some other glacial lakes formed in mountainous areas, Lake Bled is protected from wind by the surrounding mountain ranges.

At a distance, we could appreciate how difficult it must have been to build the castle on that sheer cliff. With its surroundings of high mountains (the Julian alps) and beautiful blue-green lake water, the Bled castle looks like a setting for a fantasy movie.
The flat-bottomed Pletna boat design dates back to the 12th century; each hand-crafted boat is powered by the muscles of the oarsman as he rows with his two,16-foot oars from a standing position in the rear of the boat.
The tiny wooded island has several buildings on it, including a church and a free-standing 170 foot bell tower, which sadly has NO view from its top because of the wire mesh over the windows.

Only 99 steps up to the central courtyard where the church and bell tower are located. If a couple wishes to get married in the church, the groom must carry the bride up the step and into the church in order to ensure a long and happy life together.
In addition to the beautiful and ornate interior, the church has a wishing bell. But wishes are only granted to those who can ring the bell three times with a single pull, and who truly believe in God. (Photo from Fine Stay Slovenia)

Baby dragons in Postojna cave, Slovenia

I’ve visited quite a few famous caves in the U.S., but the amazing caverns carved from karst limestone near Postojna in southwestern Slovenia are the most spectacular I’ve ever seen. They are definitely one of the Wonders of the Natural World.

We walked over the Pivka river bridge and uphill to the cave. This is the river that carved the caverns millions of years ago.
From this unassuming entrance a complex of caverns and passageways runs 24 kilometers (14.4 miles) underground. There are actually four caves, interconnected by the Pivka river, which drains through them.
5 km of the cave is open to the public, the first 3.5 of which is covered by train. The rail system was first installed in 1872, and electric lighting shortly after that. The cave became a tourist destination as early as 1819 with Archduke Ferdinand’s visit, but the cave has graffiti dating to the 1200s!
We followed a very well maintained path up and down through numerous passageways and huge ballrooms over a 1.5 km track to view a huge variety of cave formations. One such ballroom is noted for its exceptional acoustics and is so large it can hold 10,000 people. Symphony orchestras sometimes perform there.
Some of the massive rooms were several stories tall, decorated with all shapes, sizes, colors, and varieties of cave structures. The bridge in this photo was constructed by Russian POWs during WW1.
This is not an effect of multiple colored lights on the cave structures, but are multi-colored columns of stalactites and stalagmites that have fused together over centuries as mineral-laden water seeped through the porous limestone.
Pale white formations are pure calcium carbonate, and darker stained formations have manganese in them.
I thought this collection of stalagmites looked like little people.
A pure white column (called “the Brilliant”) stands right next to a chocolate brown column with thin rods that have gradually fused together. It’s fascinating to think about how the water must have dripped through here to create these shapes.

The Postojna cave system is notable because of all the animal life found there. Over 100 species have managed to survive in the dark, cold (45-50 F), mineral-rich water, including a cave beetle species, a jelly fish relative, crustaceans, pseudo scorpions, and a cave spider species. But the largest and most remarkable cave dweller in Postojna cave is the “baby dragon” or cave salamander or Olm (Proteus anguinus).

The Olm reaches 8-12 inches in length, with a worm-like body, feeble forelegs, and a short tail. It has bright pink, frilly external gills, and basically resembles the aquatic, larval stage of salamanders even when sexually mature (a condition called neoteny). They are completely blind (eyes covered by skin) but have sound and vibration detectors in their elongate head, as well as smell and taste receptors in their nose that help them find prey. (Photo from CNN travel, Dec 2021)

There was some excitement among the cave biologists several years ago when one of the large Olms began to lay eggs. It took quite a while but she eventually laid more than 50 eggs, about 20 of which hatched in about 5 months. The youngsters had normal eyes, but they regressed in size and skin eventually grew over them. When presented with small worms, Olms immediately go on the attack, hoovering them up (like a vacuum cleaner) with their elongate snout.

Photos of a few of other inhabitants of Postojna cave, from CNN travel, Dec, 2021.