Anting turkeys

Type that phrase (“anting turkeys”) into google and you’re likely to get “did you mean hunting turkeys?”  No, of course not, I meant exactly what I typed — are wild turkeys one of the birds that use anting behavior to cleanse themselves of parasites?  And yes, they are. (Read more about this behavior in Bird Watching Daily.

great-tit-anting

Great Tit anting behavior (observed last May 216 in Wales) is typical of what birds do to rid themselves of eternal parasites.

Over 200 bird species have been observed to search out areas where ants are likely to be found, immerse themselves in the dirt and dust there, and fluff their feathers as if they were bathing.  With a big bird like a turkey, it’s quite a show.

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Five Wild Turkeys immersed themselves in pine needle fluff and dirt. Apparently this is a favorite place to go “ant”, because there were numerous turkey-shaped scrapes in the hillside.

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Scrape the dirt, fluff feathers, and wiggle around until a good layer of litter and dirt works its way into those feathers.

And the reason for this behavior — ants release formic acid as a deterrent to being disturbed or threatened, and formic acid turns out to be a relatively good miticide (i.e., insecticide for mites).

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Crouched down in the litter, the first thing turkeys did was scrape the dirt vigorously with their bill. Was that to agitate the ants and get them moving?

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Get those legs into the actions as well, and stir up the litter and dirt behind and beneath them, while rustling feathers.

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Rolling around, making sure head and neck get immersed in the ant-laden dirt and litter.

“But that’s not the end of the story.  The ants having released their toxic chemical are now fair game to be eaten, and provide some nutrition if a bird eats enough of them. So, as the bird preens its feathers after its ant dust bath, it can safely consume any stray ants it comes across — sort of like a dessert menu item. And this was quite nicely proven in an experiment by two Cornell biologists (in 2009) who observed that Blue Jays ate 90% of the ants that had been relieved of their formic acid, but engaged in anting behavior instead with ants that were intact (containing their sacs of formic acid).” (Backyard Biology, May 5, 2016)

the big itch*

You never know what to expect when you’re out looking for new bird species on a bird watching trip.  One of our group spied a Great Tit — ah, we had seen that one before, and in fact they are rather common, especially where there are bird feeders.

Great Tit-Wales

Great Tits are about twice the size of a Black-capped chickadee, with a black stripe down their chest and some yellow color on their sides.

But then this bird started to do something very uncommon (to us).  It dropped to our feet about 10 feet away and began rubbing its ventral surface on the ground, stopping every now and then to pick up something from the ground and tuck it under its wing.

Great Tit-exhibiting anting behavior

Why is this bird rubbing its belly on the ground?

Great Tit-

What is this bird picking up off the ground?

Great Tit-

What is this bird putting under its wings? It did this over and over — finding something on the ground, and then putting something on or under its feathers.

This is most likely “anting” behavior, in which birds rub themselves on anthills or place ants individually on their bodies, as this Great Tit is doing.  Over 200 species of birds have been observed “anting”, especially when they are molting new feathers or have an especially heavy load of feather mites or other parasites.

The ants carry a load of formic acid as a defense, and will release it when poked or pinched — which the birds do when they pick them up, or rub against them on the dirt of their anthills.  The formic acid, in turn, acts as a deterrent to the bird’s parasites, because it is a natural miticide.  So, the bird uses ants as a chemical defense against other arthropod parasites.

Great Tit-

I itch, …I itch,… I itch…

But that’s not the end of the story.  The ants having released their toxic chemical are now fair game to be eaten, and provide some nutrition if a bird eats enough of them. So, as the bird preens its feathers after its ant dust bath, it can safely consume any stray ants it comes across — sort of like a dessert menu item. And this was quite nicely proven in an experiment by two Cornell biologists (in 2009) who observed that Blue Jays ate 90% of the ants that had been relieved of their formic acid, but engaged in anting behavior instead with ants that were intact (containing their sacs of formic acid).

Two benefits for the price of one interaction, to solve the problem of the big itch.

*The Big Itch is a play on words, based on the record set by our guides Alan Davies and Ruth Miller for bird species seen in a year (more than 4300) and described in their book — “The Biggest Twitch — Around the World in 4000 birds“.

Alan Davies and Ruth Miller-

Alan Davies and Ruth Miller in a field of bluebells at one of our birding sites.