Above the rainforest canopy

A series of 14 bridges carry you from big tree to big tree at the Explorama canopy walk just a short walk from Napo lodge on the Napo river, one of the Amazon tributaries.

Explorama canopy walk, Napo lodge, Peru

Successive walkways gain height until you reach a height of 117 feet above the forest floor.

Explorama canopy walk, Napo lodge, Peru

Netting strung between cables provides hand holds for a shaky bridge. The floor of the walkway is two side-by-side boards covering ladders laid horizontally end to end. Longer bridges shake noticeably, but are safe, and checked every day.

Few birds were active in the middle of the day when we did the canopy walk, but the views were magnificent.

Explorama canopy walk, Napo lodge, Peru

Bromeliads covered the top one third of the tree trunks. These “air plants” capture rainfall in the canopy and provide breeding sites for frogs, lizards, spiders, and insects, which the birds then feed upon.

Black-bellied Cuckoo, Amazon, Peru

A Black-bellied Cuckoo rested in the shade at tree top, escaping the mid-day heat.

White-tailed Trogon, Amazon, Peru

A White-tailed Trogon alternately panted and looked around from his high altitude perch in the canopy.

Canopy lizard, Amazon, Peru

This canopy lizard would have made a nice meal for the cuckoo, but the birds were too hot to hunt. And so were we!

Into the rainforest

We left the delightful warm weather in Lima for the steamy jungle in northeastern Peru, where plants thrive, insects diversify to eat them, and birds that eat both the insects and or the plants adopt outlandish colors and decorative feathers to show off.  In other words, we are immersed in DIVERSITY.

Explorama lodge, Amazon river

Explorama lodge on the Amazon river

We headed down the Amazon river about an hour from Iquitos (in northeastern Peru) by motor boat, to Explorama Lodge, where we would stay in non air-conditioned lodging, with cold showers to cool us down after trekking through the steamy jungle. Boat trips out on the river and walks through the rain forest provided opportunities to see some of that diversity.

Passion flower butterfly

Passion flower butterfly

Heliconia flower

Heliconia flowers, a relative of banana, are actually colorful, waxy bracts, in which the actual flowers hide. They advertise their sweet nectar to hummingbirds with bright red and yellow colors.

Scarlet macaw

Scarlet macaw, really up-close, a family pet of river villagers

White-cheeked Jacamar, Explorama lodge, Amazon

The White-chinned Jacamar is shades of iridescent teal and green with a chestnut cap and a white chin of course.

Poison dart frog, Amazon forest

Poison dart frogs are tiny but bright and can be found in the moist forest floor or lower vegetation.

Are you seeing a pattern here of vividly bright colors of tropical flowers and animals?  I wonder why that is?  Your thoughts?

Mug shots – take 1

It’s great when you can get really close to the wildlife, i.e., right in their “faces”, to grab a “mug shot”.  I didn’t get many this year, but there were a few opportunities, assisted either by my extremely long (600 mm) telephoto lens or my trusty macro, to get up close and personal with the local wildlife on our travels and in my backyard.

hoverfly-on coneflower

Hoverfly gleaning pollen and/or nectar from New England Asters.

american-painted-lady-on sedum

American-painted-lady-on fall-blooming Sedum; they came through by the dozens to congregate on late-blooming flowers

honeybees-on-new-england-aster

Honeybees foraged on New England Aster; I saw more of them this year than in the last 5 years combined.

small-carpenter-bee-ceratina-spp

A tiny carpenter bee feasting on pollen from newly opened anthers on a coneflower.

bullfrog-

We found a Bullfrog calling in a desert oasis in Arizona. Kind of ugly, but beautiful eyes…that might be a mosquito on his upper lip trying to get a meal.

chuckwalla-

A Chuckwalla was sunning itself at the Sonora desert museum in Tucson. Dark pigmented scales on its underside help it soak up heat from rocks. Chuckwallas love to hide in rock crevices and resist being pulled out from their hiding place by puffing up their body with air, expanding into any empty space in the crevice.

snapping turtle-

Snapping Turtles have large jaws and long necks, but this one was protecting itself by withdrawing into its carapace.  My what beady little eyes you have, Mr. Turtle.

Great Blue Heron-

Eye to eye with a Great Blue Heron

molting mallard ducks-

Male Mallard Duck before molting a new set of showy feathers

Black-capped Chickadee-

Chickadee with an attitude…

green on green

Hiding in plain sight by matching the color of your skin to the color of the background is useful for predators stalking their prey or prey trying to escape predation.  It’s also useful in confusing photographers about where to aim their cameras.  Case in point: I saw the bushes moving, wondered if it was a bird, thought it might be a chipmunk, but stared right at the little critter for a full minute before I figured out what it was.

gray tree frog-

A gray tree frog in green phase hiding in plain sight.  It wasn’t this obvious without the zoom on the camera to help pinpoint its location.

gray tree frog-

It’s scientific name gives a hint to its ability to change colors: Hyla versicolor. Usually it appears mostly gray with green splotches.

Many species of fish, amphibians, and reptiles have the ability to change color and outward appearance by contracting or expanding the chromatophore (pigment-containing) cells in their skin.  This chameleon-like ability can assist them in better regulating their body temperature, or as suggested, in achieving the kind of camouflage that helps them evade their predators or fool their prey. It is thought that the animals’ eyes perceive the color spectrum of their environment and send neural signals to skin chromatophores to effect the appropriate color changes.

In cases where there doesn’t seem to be a clear message about the color of the background, Gray Treefrogs are often mottled gray and green, or just remain gray, as illustrated below.

gray-tree-frog-

Hmm… water in a bird bath? Not sure what color to be.

gray-tree-frog-

Gray treefrog sitting on the side of a dish pan, next to green vegetation — again, it’s confusing about what color to be.

gray-tree-frog-

Gray treefrog sitting on an orange dahlia — no possibility of a match here.

gray-tree-frog-green-phase

Green-colored Gray treefrog on the ledge of a wooden door? Clearly a bad match.

Toxic toads

I heard a few faint, froggy croaks coming from the dying perennials in the garden.  It seemed a little late in the season for the local amphibians to be active.  But wind and coolish temperatures didn’t deter an appearance by this little American Toad — hiding in the litter under the aging peony vegetation.

American Toad

It’s not much bigger than the chunk of mulch it was sitting on (about 2 inches long). 

American Toad

Not the most attractive skin with its lumps and spots, but those large lumps right behind the eyes (called parotid glands) are the toad’s secret weapons.

Amphibian skin is really quite special.  It can absorb water like a sponge when its owner is dehydrated, and it can secrete a variety of chemicals its owner might use for defense.  Poison dart frogs aren’t the only amphibians to use toxic chemicals to deter predators; several Toad species (in the genus Bufo) secrete a combination of chemicals called “bufotoxin”, which induce a variety of debilitating reactions in animals that try to eat them.  Although concentrations of bufotoxin vary from species to species, one website claims that “the skin of an average-sized toad can cause significant symptoms and even death in humans and other animals”.

Pet owners beware — don’t let your dogs lick any toads.

“Eye” wonder

Last year I wrote about the possible basis for the many variations of eye color in birds (click here to read that post).  Unlike most mammals which sport a limited variety of pale blue, gray, green, to dark brown shades, I’ve noticed that frogs and toads, like birds, also exhibit a rich variety of eye colors.  And so, “eye” wonder why?

LEOPARD FROG-

Leopard frogs have a golden-colored iris with some dark speckles running through it.

GRAY TREE FROG-

Similarly, Gray Treefrogs also exhibit that golden-colored iris with the darks streaks running through it.

But these highly colorful eyes are tame, compared to those of a couple of South American frogs.

ghost glass frog

Those are some mesmerizing eyeballs in this Ghost Glass Frog. Glass frogs have see-through skin, especially on their ventral surface, which is as transparent as glass permitting a view of their internal organs.  Are those wild purple lines etched on the silver background of its iris to captivate female glass frogs, or frighten potential predators?

Red_eyed_tree_frog_

Red-eyed Treefrogs sit quietly on the underside of leaves during the day. But if disturbed by a predator or nosy human, they flash their big red eyes, orange toes, and yellow and purple legs to startle and gain time to escape.  [Photo from Wikipedia, By Carey James Balboa via Wikimedia Commons]

The variety of eye color in frogs and toads is astounding, as captured in this collage by Jodi Rowley.

eye color in frogs-Jodi Rowley

Just a sampling of the normal variation among amphibian species… From RealScientists.org

Surely all this ocular advertisement has purpose — beyond frightening would-be predators?  Any speculation from you, dear readers?

In addition to the flash of color provided by the wide-open frog eye, you may have noticed that frogs have the ability to project their eyes outward from their head, or retract the eyes inward level with their skull.

leopard-frog-swimming

This leopard frog has staked out a calling site, hoping to attract females. But it’s broad daylight and he needs to be able to see approaching predators (and photographers). 

Extrinsic eye muscles that elevate the eye above the level of the head actually give the frog a 360 degree view of its environment.  Movement of the eyes downward presses on the roof of the frog’s mouth, helping to propel food down the back of the throat toward the stomach.  Eyes — the multiple use organ!

Color me green, or gray, or brown…

Gray Treefrog, Hyla versicolor

The ever-changeable, Gray Treefrog.  How does it do it?

Green is a popular color for frogs, and birds too, but that lovely green color doesn’t come from a green pigment as you might expect, but from the interaction of multiple layers of specialized color and light-reflecting cells in the upper layers of their skin.

Frogs have three layers of chromatophores (color-producing cells) in their skin. The deepest layer are melanophores that produce melanin pigment giving skin a brown to black color. The middle layer are iridiphores which contain no pigment but instead have mirror like plates capable of producing iridescence, or when viewed from a certain angle, reflect blue light. The most superficial layer of chromatophores are xanthophores that contain a yellow pigment.  When the middle layer of iridophores interact with the top layer of yellow-pigment containing xanthophores, you get what elementary school students have learned:  yellow paint + blue paint = green color.

gray treefrog color

A closeup look at the skin of Gray Treefrogs reveals a mottled pattern of color — the result of different stimuli to those color producing cells in the skin.

Animals that change their skin color (like some frogs and reptiles) not only can change the shape and size of the chromatophore but the dispersion of the pigment within the cells.  Thus, tightly contracted chromatophores with no dispersion of pigment might appear white, and the opposite pattern would look black. Moderate dispersion of melanin pigment in the deepest layer of chromatophores looks gray. Dispersion of pigment in the xanthophores coupled with dispersion of light-reflecting particles in the iridophores produces variation of yellow, blue, and green colors in the skin.  Combination of all of the above produces the mottled pattern of coloration the animal uses to blend in with its background — a protective camouflage.

gray treefrog color-closeup

An even closer, close-up look at the skin of the Gray Treefrog.

Color change seems to be temperature dependent:  warmer frogs are lighter in color to reflect incident light; darker frogs are generally cooler and the darker skin helps them absorb heat.  Skin color becomes lighter when these frogs are placed on a brighter background, and darker when placed on a dark background.  This color matching is part of the effective camouflage protection.  And lastly color change may reflect the mood of the animal — e.g., sexual display, territorial display, etc.  The stimulus for all of this change begins in the brain, is transmitted by hormones, and carried out by the actions of the chromatophores — all in a matter of seconds to minutes.

A really detailed and fascinating discussion of how color change is achieved in animals (in this case a Chameleon) is shown below.

Fotogenic Frog

gray tree frog

A dahlia flower fell down into some yews, and a shy tree frog decided it was a fine place to rest.

The Eastern Gray Treefrogs are most often found on vegetation, usually high up in the trees, rather than near water, as their name implies.  Actually, I most often see them in the outdoor tank we use to water potted plants.

gray tree frog

I picked up the lid of the water tank to see if it needed filling, and found this little guy waiting for me. I don’t know how they get in, and I wonder how they get out.

gray tree frog

They are adept at climbing vertical surfaces, even slick ones, using their sticky, enlarged toepads.

Their skin has a warty appearance, like that of toads, and they manage to stay hydrated without taking refuge in pools of water, even during hot days.  Gray Treefrogs tend to hunt at night, often near an outdoor light fixture where they can capture insects coming to the light.

gray tree frog

Interesting eye color in this individual, and you notice patches of green in the otherwise gray skin.

Skin color in these frogs is highly variable (hence their scientific name — Hyla versicolor).  Three layers of chromatophores in the skin (color-producing cells) combine to produce the color pattern, which can change (very slowly) from near white to very dark brown, with variations of mottled green and gray in between. Treefrogs don’t match their environment perfectly the way a chameleon does, but their color changes do help camouflage them in their environment somewhat.  More on how this is accomplished in the next post!  Stay tuned.

gray tree frog

oops, there are no red-orange pigments in those chromatophores, so color matching this dahlia would be tough.

Frogs!

Off and on rainy days with warm(er) temperatures have really set the frogs in motion here.  I sat on an upended bucket by one of the ponds in the backyard and trained my binoculars on the pond’s edge, hoping to finally locate those tiny little creatures that were making that hugely loud racket.

Eventually, by trying to ignore the loudest chirpers, I could distinguish three different types of calls, all at different pitches, frequencies, and volume.  Finally, by staring at the water where I thought the calls were coming from (this takes sound localization ability, which apparently I am lousy at), I found the frogs making them.

Leopard frogs made very low intensity calls, very infrequently, and I couldn't really see where the sound was coming from (no obviously inflated pouches).

Leopard frogs made very low intensity, low pitch calls, and call very infrequently.  I couldn’t really see where the sound was coming from (no obviously inflated pouches).

Wood frogs sit horizontally in the water Ilike the leopard frogs, emitting sort of a quacking call that sounds like it should be coming from a duck.

Wood frogs sit horizontally in the water, like the leopard frogs, emitting sort of a quacking call that sounds like it should be coming from a duck.  Dark bodies, striped legs, and a black mask over the eyes outlined with white stripes — make this frog quite attractive.

wood frog, Rana sylvatica

Here the wood frog has inflated its vocal sacs during its "quack" call.

Here the wood frog has inflated its vocal sacs during its “quack” call.  When they do this, the water around them shows disturbances in concentric circles, making them a little easier to find in the pond (if you have bad sound localization ability).

Wood frogs are found almost everywhere in central and eastern North America; they are one of the first frogs out in the spring, as soon as the ice melts off the ponds.  They are unique in that they tolerate being frozen solid over the winter, as they “hibernate” in a state of suspended metabolism under the leaf litter.  Click here to view a short video of wood frogs calling (in Minnesota).  And here is an amazing video of Wood Frogs defrosting from their frozen winter state.

By far, the loudest, shrillest, and almost deafening calls were coming from the Boreal Chorus Frogs (Pseudacris maculata), which were almost impossible to find, mostly because I was looking in the wrong places.  They were sitting at least 3 feet from the shore, out in the submerged vegetation, oriented vertically, with their head, vocal sacs and abdomen out of the water.  Perhaps the volume of noise from multiple frogs confuses predators as well.  Are herons and egrets immune to this racket?

Even maximum telephoto didn't bring these tiny, one-inch Chorus frogs into view.

Even maximum telephoto didn’t bring these tiny, one-inch Chorus frogs into view.  

So, I moved to a better viewing spot, sat, and waited until they got used to my presence, and then got closer-up views of a calling Chorus Frog.  These frogs (once you see them) are easily distinguished by the three longitudinal stripes down their backs.

The cricket-like call is emitted through the larynx (voice box), but is amplified by vocal sacs.  The body cavity of the frog swells when air is inhaled through the nostrils, and the vocal sac shrinks.

The cricket-like call is emitted through the larynx (voice box), but is amplified by vocal sacs. The body cavity of the frog swells when air is inhaled through the nostrils, and the vocal sac shrinks.

Then, the frog contracts its muscles to expel the air during exhalation through the larynx, enlarging the vocal sac, and producing a vibration that amplifies the sound.

Then, the frog contracts its muscles to expel the air during exhalation through the larynx, enlarging the vocal sac, and producing a vibration that amplifies the sound.

If you haven’t had the pleasure of standing next to a group of calling Chorus Frogs, you can view a short video here.  These tiny frogs can emit sound at nearly 90 decibels, which is about as loud as the human ear can stand without damage, about the same as standing next to a truck without a muffler.  And, they call continuously for hours and days on end.  Now how is that for amazing!

For good photos and descriptions of MN frogs and toads, you can click here.

Why are frogs green?

I happened to notice blue speckles on the face of the frog in the last post and thought it might be an aberration of the image capture.

But it’s not — it’s due to the chromatophores in the frog’s skin. It’s the answer to why frogs are green, or blue, or red and orange, or how they change color from one shade or pattern to another.

The pattern of color in this subadult Gray Tree Frog (also inhabiting the rain barrel along with the adult in yesterday’s post) shows the range of colors in this species — from almost white to dark green.

If you zoom in, you see patches of skin that are white, various shades of gray, and a range of shades of green almost to black. On the right side of the photo are patches of skin reflecting blue-green instead of green, which suggests the use of structure to produce color (as discussed earlier in birds).

It turns out that frogs have three layers of chromatophores (color-producing cells) in their skin. The deepest layer are melanophores that produce melanin pigment giving skin a brown to black color. The middle layer are iridiphores which contain no pigment but instead have mirror like plates capable of producing iridescence, or when viewed from a certain angle, reflect blue light. The most superficial layer of chromatophores are xanthophores that contain a yellow pigment.

Frogs that lack xanthophores are various shades of blue, like this blue poison dart frog found in Brazil. Black spots are created by the melanophores underlying the iridophores.

(photo from Wikipedia)

So the answer to why frogs are green comes from the interaction of the chromatophores in the top two layers — iridiphores that produce blue color and xanthophores that produce yellow color. As any school kid knows, mixing yellow plus blue yields…

(photo by co-blogger Alison)

And, more amazing is the fact that Gray Tree Frogs can change color to suit their background (or their mood) within seconds, not as fast as a chameleon, but fast enough. They do this by dispersing (darker color) or contracting (lighter color) the pigment granules within the chromatophores or even changing the entire shape of the cell.